preferir, leia o texto traduzido para o portuguÍs
in a community
into the culture of a whole population...)
(a practitioner since 1978)
|Comments on Slide 1 - Introducing decentralized
composting in a community|
presentation was prepared to be exhibited at the International
Conference "Agriculture in an Urbanizing Society" held in Rome, from
September 14 to 17, 2015.
|Comments on Slide 2 - Map
has a large territory. so huge as its problems.
This map shows the Brazilian states compared to other countries of the
Brazil is the 5th
largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, China and USA -
only if Alaska is included) and it has the 5th largest population
(after China, India, USA and Indonesia).
Imagens de Visconde de MauŠ
|Comments on Slide 3 - Map
of Mantiqueira's Environmental Protection Area|
EPA is a natural Conservation Unity created in 1986 by the federal
government to foster
the preservation of an ecological "hotspot" located between the states
of Rio de Janeiro, S„o Paulo and Minas Gerais - the three most
important Brazilian states. This EPA includes 30 municipalities
belonging to these three states, with their many small towns. For its
natural beauties, many forests and waterfalls, and its cold
, the region atracts tourists from Brazil and beyond.
in a clear day (article in a newspaper - 1978)
a poisonless food (article in a newspaper -
gardens - Suggestion: a garden in every home,
industry, prison and military quarter (article in
a newspaper - 1981)
gardens in Rio de Janeiro (article in a
newspaper - 1982)
|Comments on Slide 4 - Previous initiatives (1978-1981)|
article, written by the most important Brazilian poet (and
"philosopher") of the XXth Century, was published in the most important
newspaper of Rio de
Janeiro (at that
time). His text
mentions my efforts to
make people aware about the increasing dangers introduced in our
food (and bodies) by the
industrialized agricultural system. He also mentions two other
important pioneering ecologists.
article published by the same newspaper (Jornal do Brasil),
I started the creation of an organic food cooperative, gathering
producers and consumers worried about the increasing poisoning of our
article, published by the other main Rio's newspaper (O Globo),
that gardens were cultivated in the whole city. It mentioned the first
initiatives resulting from the previous articles and the movement they
started, including the partnership with the municipality of Rio and a
very important federal development agency (Mobral) that reached all the
national terrtitory. Unfortunately, this partnership was
"discontinued" when the Rio's mayor was substituted by a new
and Mobral was
closed by a new Brazilian president.
example of article published by O Globo, about a project that
set up vegetable gardens in 14 schools of a disctrict of Rio's
municipality. These are only four examples of many articles published
by the main newspapers of Rio about our pionnering initiatives related
to urban gardening that time.
|Comments on Slide 5 - Other inspiring initiatives|
website of New York City about its composting system was
translated into Portuguese
(a voluntary initiative) to allow the Brazilian public officers and
practtioners to learn how the municipality of a huge city
manages its organic waste.
example of voluntary work to make international information
available to the Brazilian people interested in or
involved with environmental and/or educational matters.
example of a "Master Composter Manual" was translated (not complete -
more than 120 pages...) to show how "they" work in the
United States on urban composting methods and possibilities.
a very important project currently developed in the capital of a
Brazilian state (the southern Santa Catarina), by a local NGO
(Cepagro). The population is stimulated to separate in "buckets" their
organic waste to be collected and composted in communitary sites. The
finished compost is then given back to the
participants, fertilizing their small urban gardens.
important project currently developed in S„o
Paulo City (the capital of S„o Paulo state). A local NGO (Morada da
Floresta), in partnership with SP municipality, is distributing
vermicomposting boxes that allow people
to process their organic residues at home. It is in its pilot-phase,
but has already distributed 2,000 kits of boxes and earthworms to whom
has applied. To be true, when the project was proposed to the
asking for applications, more than 10 thousand people applied, but the
organizers prefered to work with 2 thousand dwellers for a while,
before expanding the project.
More recent initiatives
Agriculture Magazine in Portuguese
- The Urban
composting in Visconde de MauŠ
the composting site of a huge nuclear facility in Rio
composting at the Visconde de MauŠ High
|Comments on Slide 6 - More recent initiatives|
2003, the Urban Agriculture Magazine is being translated into
Portuguese (a professional but also "voluntary" job) to
very important contents available to Brazilian public servants,
educators, researchers and practitioners engaged with urban
agriculture, food security and sustainable development. This Magazine
is published (two editions
per year) in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Turkish, Chinese and...
website was prepared according to a suggestion for the Brazilian
federal agencies that deal (or
should deal) with social develpment,
food security and environmental issues. The project was started but
soon discontinued as the federal government changed (in 2011) and all
the people involved - at the official side of the partnership - were
substituted by new ones,
not so interested in these matters.
Another example of frustration among many other initiatives that
involved governmental agencies, in the federal, state and
municipal levels as well - always discontinued before reaching their
voluntary work, now in Visconde de MauŠ, to where I moved in
2002. This community composting site was organized to demonstrate to
the public officers (federal, state and municipal together) who were
developing a "waste management project" for the region, how easy it is
to process the organic residues.
Composting only requires organization and
discipline - but "they" did not believe, even seeing how successful was
the site, maintained for six years (producing a new compost heap
until the area's owner demanded it back for other purpose.
a nuclear instalation (that produces the combustible for the
Brazilian atomic plants), located in the same municipality where
is Visconde de MauŠ, about 450 kg of
organic residues (from its industrial kitchen and restaurant for almost
2,000 employees) were composted everyday, but in an improper
allowing some important environmental impacts, as the incredible
presence of flies, awful odors, the ground
always sogged by
the liquids that escaped from the residues. The "heaps" had to
be covered by old metalic covertures to keep away from them
gavioes) that visit the site every
night and spread
residues around. This
coverture increased the visual degradation of the
soon as we first visited the site, improvements
were done, mainly the introduction of more dry materials (leaves, grass
clips etc.), reducing the presence of flies, the offensive
liquids that leaked around the heaps. To protect them from the birds,
a modular protection system using weld wire fences.
All the scene
changed immediaty, including the self-steem uprising of the
employers who manage the residues everyday.
This has been a
professional job (consultancy).
voluntary work, done at the local High School, organizing a
composting site for the residues that come from its kitchen and
restaurant that serve meals for 600 students and staff everyday.
in the community
reduction goals of the Brazilian Solid Residues National Law
letter for 30 municipalities in Mantiqueira's
letters from 10 municipalities (2014)
text sent to them on community composting (2014)
|Comments on Slide 7 - Introducing composting in the community|
2008, the Solid Residues National Law was voted, demanding - among
other points - the quantity of organic (and also "dry") waste
reduction, according to a timetable starting in 2015. Of
another Brazilian Law that stayed "in the paper", because very few
municipalities (legally responsible for the local waste management)
were prepared to accomplish it.
Even the most organized municipal
environmental agencies neglected the organic fraction of the residues,
preferring to deal with only the dry materials (paper, plastic, glass
2014, the small official team that "takes care" of the federal
Protection Area (EPA) of Mantiqueira - an important ecological
between Rio and Sao Paulo states (and the cities with these same names)
decided to help the 30 municipalities included in the region reach the
we suggested to the EPA team to send a
letter to the 30 mayors offering our collaboration to develop a
participative project - innovative, cheap and effective - using
mainly the resources they already have in their official agencies
related to Education, Environment etc., and inviting
local volunteers to help.
A letter was
signed by the chief of EPA's team, and sent to the mayors, supposedly
concerned with reaching the goals of the SRNL... Our main objective was
to help compost their organic waste, generally neglected by their
municipalities replied informing that they would like to participate.
basic text on composting was then prepared, showing
them how decentralized systems of processing organic wastes
be easily implemented, without creating new expenses for their
municipalities. The text explained the two main options: community
domestic systems, and the vermicomposting (in-door) method as well.
practical and technical
of the project
pilot-project in Visconde de MauŠ (2014)
to help spreading the system in the
the local hotels and restaurants (1
and 2) (2014
|Comments on Slide 8 - The practical and technical aspects of the project|
voluntary project, it was impossible to work in the 10 municipalites
that agreed to develop it with us. So we decided to implement a
in Visconde de MauŠ, where lived the volunteers more active and
Through the internet, the other people - in the other nine
municipalities engaged - could follow our initiatives, and discuss and
them according their needs and possibilities.
practical reasons - mainly the independence regarding the public
agencies' support (always uncertain) -, the system we are spreading
easily is the "domestic" one, using welded wire fences to
cilindrical bins to compost inside the residues together with
dry materials like
leaves, straw, grass clippings etc.
motivate the population to participate in the project, two different
prepared - one album with pictures and texts to be shown to the
businesspeople and dwellers, with basic information about
management, the new Law etc., and one flier to be distributed (given to
the practical way to compost their waste, using the welded wire
reach the businesspeople in their hotels, hostels and restaurants, two
visits were organized, with the participation of members of the
federal, state and municipal agencies who work in the region, involved
in environmental issues and education. The presence of these officers
was important to show, to the people visited, the importance of our
|Comments on Slide 9 - The pilot-area: Visconde de MauŠ|
to Resende (RJ) municipality and inserted in the Mantiqueira federal
Environmental Protection Area (EPA), Visconde de MauŠ was selected to
be our pilot-area for the reason that live there the volunteers more
involved and experimented, but also because the Resende's Agency for
Environment Protection is our most active partner for years.
results and challenges
of composters in use in homes, elementary schools
restaurants and hostels (2015)
- Our main
constraint: the lack
of productivity of the official agencies (always)
is the recycling...
|Comments on Slide 10 - Current
results and challenges|
spread the practice among the dwellers and families, another tactics
was used: we
identified the houses with flower and/or vegetable gardens,
and visited them first, presuming that their inhabitants were more
producing their own fertilizer. This method is being successful, and
people who adopt our idea become promoters of the project, and even
ask their neighbors (who don't compost yet or don't
enough space for it) to give them the organic waste.
- If the
system is so easy, cheap and effective, what is impeaching
its quick spreading in the region?
Our main constraint is the
proverbial lack of productivy of the local official agencies, similar
to what happens in the federal and state levels. If they were more
commited to help spread community composting in the region (and in
Brazil), we could expect to reach the SRNL goals...
this assertion, in April
2014, the important Secretary of Strategic Issues (a federal agency
directly related to the Presidency of the Republic) has
a study made by another important federal agency - the
Institute for Applied Economics Research - that verified the
"increasing" lack of productive of Brazil when compared to the
productivity of other nations.
Now, our productivity is 20% of the
USA's, 25% of Germany's and South Korea's, and 33% of the
average reached by
the developed countries of the world.
Armondi, agricultural engineer, collaborates in all the projects
developed in Visconde de MauŠ e Resende.
- The current
project in Visconde de MauŠ has the support of three NGOs (ABIDES,
Mauatur and ACVM) and of its two official partners (Mantiqueira's EPA
and AMAR - the Environment Agency of Resende).
pictures shown on the slide 9 were collected on the internet (Google),
and it was impossible to identify their authors.